While I was down in Cornwall for the seasearch fish ID course, I went to a public meeting at the Royal Fowey Yacht Club that had been arranged to discuss management of the Upper Fowey and Pont Pill MCZ.
First of all, a little background. Upper Fowey and Pont Mill MCZ is an unusual marine conservation zone. It’s the second smallest, at around two square kilometres, and despite its small size it’s split into two separate areas. The main part of the MCZ is the upper Fowey estuary and the second area is Pont Pill, which is a smaller estuary that joins the main estuary from the east a short distance inside the entrance to the open sea.
MCZs are designated based on the features (habitats or species) within them. For this particular MCZ, there are six features listed in the designation, and all are habitats. The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) was included in the draft conservation objectives and there was a single record of a long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttaluatus) recorded in the area covered by the MCZ, but the record dated back to the 1960s. Neither of these species were used as a basis for designation. There are areas of seagrass in the estuary but not within the boundaries of the Upper Fowey MCZ, which followed those of the voluntary marine conservation area (vMCA) that was there previously. It may be that there are species and habitats of conservation interest within the estuary, but not within the MCZ and so not currently protected. The six habitats are:
- Coastal salt marshes and saline reedbeds, which are important habitats for birds and fish, producing a biodiversity ‘hotspot’, as well as providing natural coastal protection. This type of habitat is relatively rare in the south west.
- Intertidal coarse sediment consists of pebbles, gravels and coarse sand, and is only found at a few scattered sites in the UK. The unstable nature of the sediment means that few animals can live here successfully, with sandhoppers being one of the exceptions.
- Intertidal mud is what we normally think of when we think of estuaries – the typical mudflat that supports large populations of worms and bivalves.
- Low energy intertidal rock are areas that are sheltered from wave action and subject to weak tidal currents, which means that seaweeds can flourish, providing shelter and protection and acting as nursery grounds for juvenile fish.
- The fifth type of habitat is estuarine rocky habitat. Stable rock is rare within estuaries (because muds tend to dominate) and the rocky shore communities can differ quite substantially from those of normal coastlines because of the brackish water and sediment inflow from the rivers.
- The final type of habitat is sheltered muddy gravels. These are found in areas that are not exposed to strong tidal streams or strong wave action, and the communities of animals found within them depends on the salinity. Fully marine examples of these habitats are scarce in the UK, but are found in both the areas that make up this MCZ. This habitat is important for diversity and is rich in species such as tubeworms, burrowing anemones and bivalves.
The last two habitats are the most important, and are listed as features of conservation importance (FOCI) for this site, which means that they are “rare, threatened or declining“.
Rob Seebold, who’s a marine adviser with Natural England and Sam Davies from Cornwall IFCA ran the meeting. Rob started with a presentation about MCZs highlighting that the aim for MCZs was to make the marine environment more resilient to change. Those involved in conservation often talk about ‘ecosystem goods and services’, for example, coastal areas provide us with ‘goods’ (fish and shellfish), but also services (intertidal mud protects against erosion by dispersing the energy of waves and currents). It’s the protection and sustainable use of these goods and services that enhances the resilience of the particular marine ecosystem.
There was some concern expressed by some in the audience that they would be prevented from pursuing activities they had always done because they area now had a level of legal protection that it had not had before, and whether people coming in from outside the area would ‘play by the rules’. While Rob couldn’t rule out any changes in future he did point out that the features in the MCZ were generally in good condition. The MCZ is regulated by a number of organisations, including IFCA, the Marine Management Organisation, Cornwall Council, the Environment Agency and the Fowey harbour commissioners. The next steps are that the regulators will look at whether further management is necessary and involve local stakeholders if that’s the case, but with the aim of managing features to a ‘favourable condition’ rather than extending the scope of protection. The regulators are also required to report on the status of the sites to DEFRA every six years.
Some of the concern at the meeting related to fishing issues, rather than the conservation zone itself, and Sam Davies from Cornwall IFCA responded to these as part of her presentation. An interesting point related to the bass fishery where the minimum size for landing in the Cornish area is 37.5cm (36cm in the EU), but as a member of the audience pointed out this is below the size at which they reproduce, and that locals were actually pushing for the limit to be raised to 45cm. IFCAs can set minimum sizes within their own areas so long as they are not below the statutory minimum.
It was my first time at a public meeting like this, and I was impressed. The concerns expressed were reasonable and entirely understandable in the local context, and I didn’t hear a single negative comment about marine conservation zones. And that’s important because protection doesn’t succeed through legislation, but because people protect what they value and connect with.
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