One thing you realise when you start looking at marine protected areas in the UK is that it’s complicated. Various acronyms crop up and are sometimes (and incorrectly) used interchangeably, and working out who’s responsible for which patch of sea can be difficult. So what types of MPAs are there in the UK, who is responsible for them, and what bits of legislation make them possible and protect them?
There are five elements to MPAs in the UK. These are SACs, SPAs, SSSIs, MCZs and RAMSAR sites. SACs [1, 2] are Special Areas of Conservation, and SPAs [3, 4] are Special Protection Areas. SACs and SPAs have their origins in the Berne Convention, which came into force in 1982 and covers the conservation of natural habitats and endangered species in Europe. The convention also covers migratory species so some countries in Africa and South America have also signed the convention. Ten years later the European Union passed two directives to implement the convention: the habitats directive, which gives rise to SACs, and the birds directive, which gives rise to SPAs.
The main aim of SACs is to protect habitats. Which habitats? Well, any habitats listed in annex I and those with any species listed in annex II mean that a SAC will need to be designated. What this means is that even within the area of an SAC, the majority of species will not be explicitly protected. However, other protection is normally also used, and SACs (and SPAs) are usually given SSSI status when they are created as well. The main aim of SPAs is to protect birds and their habitats, and again this applies to particular species listed in an annex. Taken together, SACs and SPAs form a network of protected areas across Europe called the Natura 2000 [5, 6] network. Natura 2000 sites that have a marine component are sometimes called European Marine Sites.
SSSIs are Special Sites of Scientific Interest, the majority of which are on land. Some SSSIs cover intertidal areas and some include areas that are permanently covered by seawater. They have a long history, with the first being created from legislation passed in 1949 . The main piece of modern legislation that protects them is the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 [8, 9], with further protection being provided through the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000. SSSIs are designated by different organisations in different areas of the UK. These are Natural England, Natural Resources Wales (which was previously the Countryside Council for Wales until April 2013), Scottish Natural Heritage, and the DoENI (Department of the Environment Northern Ireland). SSSIs are the basis of much of the other forms of protection in the UK and most other designations are based around existing SSSIs. The sites are inspected every seven years.
MCZs are a relatively new form of protected area, and were made possible by a range of legislation. Each area of the UK has responsibility for its own territorial waters out to 12 miles from the coast. The Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 [10, 11] covered the English and Welsh territorial waters, and UK offshore areas (out to the limits of the continental shelf). An exception to this is Scotland, which passed its own marine act in 2010 [12, 13], and retains responsibility for both territorial and offshore waters in its area. Confusingly, what would be an MCZ in any other area of the UK is called an MPA in Scotland. Northern Ireland passed its marine act in 2013  and is responsible for its own territorial waters.
RAMSAR sites, like SSSIs, also have a long history. The RAMSAR convention is an international treaty created in 1971 to protect wetland sites of international importance. The first UK RAMSAR sites were created in 1976 .
At first glance, it seems that the seas around the UK are well protected. As we’ll see in later posts, that’s not quite the whole story.
1SACs with a marine component (JNCC)
2SACs (Natural England)
3SPAs with a marine component (JNCC)
4SPAs (Natural England)
5Natura 2000 (EU Commission)
6Natura 2000 (Natural England)
7NE306 Sites of Special Scientific Interest (Natural England)
8Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (JNCC)
9Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (Wikipedia)
10Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 (JNCC)
11Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 (Wikipedia)
12Marine (Scotland) Act 2010 (Scottish Government)
13Marine (Scotland) Act 2010 (Wikipedia)
14Marine Act Northern Ireland (DoENI)
15RAMSAR sites (JNCC)
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