Monthly Archives: June 2014

It’s a fish – day two

Day two of the seasearch course started relatively early (for a Sunday). We met at Towan headland in Newquay by the old lifeboat station, and the car park started to fill with divers in various states of getting ready. Most of the course participants were diving, but three of us (including me) were snorkelling. We accessed the water down a natural rock ramp, which was much less steep than the old lifeboat slipway, and entered the water at 9.30, around two hours after local high water. As I was only wearing a summer 3mm wetsuit the cold shock was a little bracing and left me hyperventilating for a good twenty seconds, as well as giving me the start of a wonderful ‘ice-cream’ headache. Visibility was around 5m as we began to snorkel. We remained on the surface so as not to interfere with the divers surveying below us, which restricted us to observing what was in the water column or on the shallower rocks, and consequently saw mostly sand eels and spider crabs. We were joined by a female grey seal who kept us company for a while before disappearing to visit the divers. As we swam back to the exit point I could see the silhouette of the seal below me, just at the limit of visibility.

Grey Seal
Grey Seal (Halichoerus grypus). CC BY-SA Duncan Greenhill

After coffee and biscuits, we moved across to the other side of Fistral beach as the tide continued to fall to meet Frances and the other participants for the rockpooling session. This was more productive for me personally, catching a large Shanny (Lipophrys pholis, and thanks to Fiona for spotting it), and later a long-spined Sea Scorpion (Taurulus bubalis). The Sea Scorpion was a complete surprise as I ran my hands through the unlikeliest looking crevice in the rock behind where we’d left our bags and found quite a sizeable fish at about 15cm long.

Shanny (Lipophyrys pholis)
Shanny (Lipophyrys pholis). CC BY-SA Duncan Greenhill
Long Spined Sea Scorpion
Long-spined Sea Scorpion (Taurulus bubalis). CC BY-SA Duncan Greenhill

As the tide started to come in we used a seine net to sample over the sand in the surf. It was hard work, and involved coordination so that the top and bottom ropes were hauled in at similar rates, and that the bottom rope was kept low to avoid all the specimens escaping underneath. We found a prawns and shrimps, a juvenile flatfish, and a number of Lesser Weaverfish (Echiichtyhys vipera), which questioned the wisdom of so many swimmers going into the water barefoot. The day ended with pasties on the beach.

Overall, it was a great weekend. I learned a lot, in good company, and hope to return next year to do the seasearch observer course.

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It’s a Fish – Day One

Seasearch is a project involving volunteer sports divers to record the habitats and marine life around the coast of the UK. I recently attended one of their training courses (Fish ID) in Newquay Cornwall. The course was organised by the Seasearch Organiser for Cornwall, Cat Wilding, who’s also the marine survey officer for Cornwall Wildlife Trust, and the tutor was Dr Frances Dipper.

The course was being held at Newquay College and after the usual introductions, the day started with a short presentation where Frances talked about some of the main groups and families and the general characteristics of fish that would be used to identify them. In the second presentation, we moved on the fundamentals – the FLEMMS system. The FLEMMS system is designed so that you can gather a lot of information for identification in what may be a relatively short glimpse as the fish disappears into a clump of weed. FLEMMS stands for:

  • Fins, specifically the unpaired fins. How many dorsal? How many ventral? Is the tail concave, convex or straight?
  • Lateral line. Is it visible in that particular species? If so, is it straight or curved?
  • Eyes. Where are they positioned? Are they large or small? Are they bulging?
  • Mouth. Where is it positioned? Is one of the lips prominent or are the lips equal? Are there any barbels?
  • Markings. Are there any distinctive patterns, colours or spots?
  • Size. Relate the size to something more general: is it finger, hand or arm size?

We then got to practise and started with the easy option – identifying fish from photographs, although as we progressed Frances would mimic the fish disappearing by changing the slides faster. We could either make quick notes about features or make a quick diagram. I chose the diagram method. It starts with a cross to represent the fish onto which we mark the fins, lateral line, eyes, mouth details, etc. The symbols aren’t standardised since it’s an aide to our memory for identification after returning to shore, rather than a reference for others, so we might use lines or shapes for fins.

FLEMMS diagram of a haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus)
FLEMMS diagram of a haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus)

This fish has three dorsal (the first prominent) and two ventral fins which, in UK waters, shows that it is a member of the cod family. There is a curved lateral line, the upper jaw extends below the lower jaw, which has a small barbel. There is a black marking just below the lateral line. The combination of the first dorsal fin and the black ‘thumbprint’ shows that this is a Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus).

FLEMMS diagram of a Shanny (Lipophyrys pholis)
FLEMMS diagram of a Shanny (Lipophyrys pholis)

This is a fish with a long single dorsal fin and a single ventral fin. The tail is convex. The head is complex, with prominent bulging eyes, and thick lips with the upper lips horizontal and slightly protruding over the lower lips. The fish is around hand size with blotchy markings. The single dorsal fin and the lack of head tentacles identifies this as a Shanny (Lipophyrys pholis).

After lunch, we went to the Blue Reef Aquarium to practise on more mobile and less cooperative fish, which included blennies, gobies, wrasse, and skates and rays.

Tompot Blenny (Parablennius gattorugine)
Tompot Blenny (Parablennius gattorugine)
CC BY-SA Duncan Greenhill

We returned to the lab at Cornwall College and had another brief presentation on some of the difficulties and confusions we might face trying to identify fish such as fish keeping fins folded down (which causes us to miscount), and changes in colouration and pattern as the fish matures or changes sex. There was a perfect end to the day with a course meal looking out over the clifftop across Great Western Beach as the surf rolled in and we wondered about conditions for the following morning.

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Protected seas? It’s a long story

One thing you realise when you start looking at marine protected areas in the UK is that it’s complicated. Various acronyms crop up and are sometimes (and incorrectly) used interchangeably, and working out who’s responsible for which patch of sea can be difficult. So what types of MPAs are there in the UK, who is responsible for them, and what bits of legislation make them possible and protect them?

Dyfi Estuary. Photo credit: Nigel Callaghan
Dyfi Estuary at low tide, looking east.
Photo credit: copyright Nigel Callaghan, CC BY SA.

There are five elements to MPAs in the UK. These are SACs, SPAs, SSSIs, MCZs and RAMSAR sites. SACs [1, 2] are Special Areas of Conservation, and SPAs [3, 4] are Special Protection Areas. SACs and SPAs have their origins in the Berne Convention, which came into force in 1982 and covers the conservation of natural habitats and endangered species in Europe. The convention also covers migratory species so some countries in Africa and South America have also signed the convention. Ten years later the European Union passed two directives to implement the convention: the habitats directive, which gives rise to SACs, and the birds directive, which gives rise to SPAs.

The main aim of SACs is to protect habitats. Which habitats? Well, any habitats listed in annex I and those with any species listed in annex II mean that a SAC will need to be designated. What this means is that even within the area of an SAC, the majority of species will not be explicitly protected. However, other protection is normally also used, and SACs (and SPAs) are usually given SSSI status when they are created as well. The main aim of SPAs is to protect birds and their habitats, and again this applies to particular species listed in an annex. Taken together, SACs and SPAs form a network of protected areas across Europe called the Natura 2000 [5, 6] network. Natura 2000 sites that have a marine component are sometimes called European Marine Sites.

SSSIs are Special Sites of Scientific Interest, the majority of which are on land. Some SSSIs cover intertidal areas and some include areas that are permanently covered by seawater. They have a long history, with the first being created from legislation passed in 1949 [7]. The main piece of modern legislation that protects them is the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 [8, 9], with further protection being provided through the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000. SSSIs are designated by different organisations in different areas of the UK. These are Natural England, Natural Resources Wales (which was previously the Countryside Council for Wales until April 2013), Scottish Natural Heritage, and the DoENI (Department of the Environment Northern Ireland). SSSIs are the basis of much of the other forms of protection in the UK and most other designations are based around existing SSSIs. The sites are inspected every seven years.

MCZs are a relatively new form of protected area, and were made possible by a range of legislation. Each area of the UK has responsibility for its own territorial waters out to 12 miles from the coast. The Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 [10, 11] covered the English and Welsh territorial waters, and UK offshore areas (out to the limits of the continental shelf). An exception to this is Scotland, which passed its own marine act in 2010 [12, 13], and retains responsibility for both territorial and offshore waters in its area. Confusingly, what would be an MCZ in any other area of the UK is called an MPA in Scotland. Northern Ireland passed its marine act in 2013 [14] and is responsible for its own territorial waters.

RAMSAR sites, like SSSIs, also have a long history. The RAMSAR convention is an international treaty created in 1971 to protect wetland sites of international importance. The first UK RAMSAR sites were created in 1976 [15].

At first glance, it seems that the seas around the UK are well protected. As we’ll see in later posts, that’s not quite the whole story.

Footnotes

1SACs with a marine component (JNCC)
2SACs (Natural England)
3SPAs with a marine component (JNCC)
4SPAs (Natural England)
5Natura 2000 (EU Commission)
6Natura 2000 (Natural England)
7NE306 Sites of Special Scientific Interest (Natural England)
8Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (JNCC)
9Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (Wikipedia)
10Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 (JNCC)
11Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 (Wikipedia)
12Marine (Scotland) Act 2010 (Scottish Government)
13Marine (Scotland) Act 2010 (Wikipedia)
14Marine Act Northern Ireland (DoENI)
15RAMSAR sites (JNCC)

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